Saturday, October 15, 2011

Show Us The Workers -- Here You Go


"Show Us The Workers - U.S. Employers Struggle to Fill Science, Technology, Engineering and Math ("STEM") Positions" is a published challenge made by Shanon R. Stevenson, of Fisher and Phillips LLP, a group of immigration attorneys in Atlanta, Georgia.  The challenge is to disprove the "shortage of STEM workers" propaganda promoted by immigration attorneys and lobbyists.  In her 2 page PDF document, Ms. Stevenson references a DOL publication, Foreign Labor Certification Annual Report, which is where I discovered the data for Table 2 and Table 3 of this document.

Ms. Stevenson writes:
"Despite the recession, the lack of jobs and the training fees charged to U.S. employers hiring foreign workers on temporary H-1B work visas, the U.S. Department of Labor’s ("USDOL") recently released Foreign Labor Certification Annual Report shows that U.S. employers are still struggling to find qualified U.S. workers in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math ("STEM"). Employers report recruiting for STEM positions for over two years in hopes of ultimately finding a qualified U.S. worker – often resulting in the employer losing lucrative contracts or having to resort to using contract workers."
Generally, when a firm is looking for new STEM talent, they look to the colleges, here's a table of the degrees conferred in areas that are rich in STEM curriculum for 2008 and 2009.

Table 1. 
NCES U.S. Citizen and Permanent Resident STEM Related Degrees Conferred 2008 and 2009


Year: 2009, 2008
Citizenship (standardized): U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents
Academic Discipline, 2-digit Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) Doctorate Degrees Doctorate Degree-Research
Scholarship
Master's Degrees Bachelor's Degrees Associate's Degrees Total 2008 and 2009
03 Natural Resources and Conservation 585 208 4,802 19,033 2,388 27,016
04 Architecture and Related Services 143 88 10,795 19,267 1,125 31,418
10 Communications Technologies/Technicians and Support Services 6 752 9,760 8,904 19,422
11 Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services 974 423 19,387 73,795 57,910 152,489
14 Engineering 4,136 2,410 38,459 131,645 4,373 181,023
15 Engineering Technologies/Technicians 54 7 4,444 29,557 60,724 94,786
26 Biological and Biomedical Sciences 6,979 2,800 16,305 155,964 4,482 186,530
27 Mathematics and Statistics 1,001 456 6,349 29,343 1,698 38,847
40 Physical Sciences 3,798 1,824 8,376 42,710 3,874 60,582
41 Science Technologies/Technicians 5 45 599 2,817 3,466
51 Health Professions and Related Clinical Sciences 12,245 2,263 116,062 230,794 323,051 684,415
Degrees Conferred 29,926 10,479 225,776 742,467 471,346 1,479,994

From the Foreign Labor Certification Annual Report, the occupations with more than 1000 Permanent (Residence) Labor Certifications are shown in Table 2, with the Office of Employment Statistics employment levels and Loss Gain.

Table 2. 
TOP PERM Labor Certifications and Employment by Occupation.



OCC_Code OCCUPATIONS WITH MORE THAN 1,000 PERMANENT LABOR CERTIFICATIONS Number of Certifications OES Employment  2010 OES Employment  2009 Employment Loss Gain
15-1031 Computer Software Engineers, Applications 9,854 499,280 495,500 3,780
15-1051 Computer Systems Analysts 5,695 495,800 512,720 (16,920)
15-1032 Computer Software Engineers,Systems Software 4,038 378,920 385,200 (6,280)
11-3021 Computer and Information Systems Managers 1,893 288,660 287,210 1,450
17-2072 Electronics Engineers,Except Computer 1,738 133,660 135,990 (2,330)
13-2011 Accountants and Auditors 1,595 1,072,490 1,106,980 (34,490)
15-1021 Computer Programmers 1,536 333,620 3678,80 (34,260)
15-2031 Operations Research Analysts 1,432 62,210 60,960 1,250
19-3021 Market Research Analysts* 1,233 Non Equiv. SOC Non Equiv. SOC N/A
35-2014 Cooks, Restaurant 1,115 901,310 898,820 2,490
17-2141 Mechanical Engineers 1,074 234,400 232,660 1,740
13-2051 Financial Analysts 1,042 220,810 235,240 (14,430)
15-1071 Network and Computer Systems Administrators* 1,034 Non Equiv. SOC Non Equiv. SOC N/A
17-2071 Electrical Engineers 1,003 148,770 151,660 (2,890)
           
  Employment Loss Gain       (100,890)

"Non Equiv. SOC" Represents Standard Occupational Classifications that have substantially changed from 2009, to the 2010 NAICS standard.

Again, from the Foreign Labor Certification Annual Report, shown in Table 3 below is the Top 10 Prevailing Wage Determination for foreign workers; additionally, employment level data for 2009 and 2010 and a Loss Gain column shown.

Table 3.
TOP Prevailing Wage Determinations and Employment by Occupation.


Wage Prevailing Wage Determinations Most Frequent Users Num of PWD OES Employment  2010 OES Employment  2009 Employment Loss Gain
$41.30 Computer Software Engineers, Applications 9,282 499,280 495,500 3,780
$37.16 Computer Systems Analysts 3,330 495,800 512,720 (16,920)
$44.36 Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software 3,092 378,920 385,200 (6,280)
$42.44 Electronics Engineers,Except Computer 1,582 133,660 135,990 (2,330)
$28.87 Physical Therapists 1,441 180,280 174,490 5,790
$60.29 Computer and Information Systems Managers 1,412 288,660 287,210 1,450
$9.57 Landscaping and Groundskeepers 1,240 829,350 859,960 (30,610)
$35.30 Mechanical Engineers 1,239 234,400 232,660 1,740
$42.84 Financial Analysts 1,143 220,810 235,240 (14,430)
$32.52 Computer Programmers 1,101 333,620 367,880 (34,260)
Employment Loss Gain (92,070)


Table 3.(a) examines the Employment Level Loss Gain for 2010 and Includes Degrees Conferred in 2009 relevant to foreign worker most requested Prevailing Wage Determinations.

Table 3.(a)
Top Prevailing Wage Determinations, Employment Levels Loss/Gain, Degrees Conferred to Citizens and Permanent Residents

Department of Labor Prevailing Wage Determinations 2010 and Relevant Educational Programs for Occupation Number of DOL Prevailing Wage Determinations OES Employment Level (Loss Gain)  2010 Year: 2009 Citizenship (standardized): U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents Level of Degree or Other Award: All values Year: 2009 Citizenship (standardized): U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents Level of Degree: Bachelor's
Computer Software Engineers, Applications 9282 3,780    
Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software 3092 (6,280)    
14.09 Computer Engineering, General - - 6,197 4,005
11.07 Computer Science - - 10,308 7,155
11.01 Computer and Information Sciences, General - - 29,984 16,169
11.04 Information Science/Studies - - 9,078 4,707
11.08 Computer Software and Media Applications - - 8,523 2,796
Sub Total - - 64,090 34,832
Computer Systems Analysts 3330 (16,920)    
11.05 Computer Systems Analysis - - 1,749 923
Electronics Engineers,Except Computer 1582 (2,330)    
14.10 Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering - - 15,123 10,733
Physical Therapists 1441 5,790    
51.23 Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Professions - - 18,140 3,182
Computer and Information Systems Managers 1412 1,450    
52.12 Management Information Systems and Services - - 13,971 7,435
11.10 Computer/Information Technology Administration and Management - - 8,263 2,216
Sub Total - - 22,234 9,651
Landscaping and Groundskeepers 1240 (30,610)    
No NCES Educational Programs - - 0  
Mechanical Engineers 1239 1,740    
14.19 Mechanical Engineering - - 20,271 16,838
Financial Analysts 1143 (14,430)    
52.08 Finance and Financial Management Services - - 39,096 33,315
Computer Programmers 1101 (34,260)    
11.99 Computer and Information Sciences and Support Services, Other - - 3,690 589
11.02 Computer Programming - - 4,449 788
Sub Total - - 8,139 1,377

Degree Level: All Values:
Doctorate Degrees, Doctorate Degree-Research/Scholarship, Doctorate Degree-Professional Practice, Doctorate Degree-Other
Master's Degrees, Bachelor's Degrees, Associate's Degrees
First Professional Certificates (Post-Degree)
Post-Master's Certificates
Post-Baccalaureate Certificates 2 But Less Than 4 Year Certificates
1 But Less Than 2 Year Certificates, Less Than 1 Year Certificates

With employers complaining of a shortage of "qualified" candidates, the term "qualified candidate" cannot be considered entry level salary.  Therefore, Table 3.(b) should be a fair representation for comparing median salaries against foreign worker salary offers. (In most cases, the Prevailing Wage Determination is low enough to recoup immigration and legal fees associated with employing foreign workers in the first year of employment.)


Table 3.(b)
Most requested Prevailig Wage Determinations with Office of Employment Statistics Mean Hourly wage for Occupations.



PWD Prevailing Wage Determinations (PWD) Most Frequent Users Num of PWDs 2010 OES Hourly Mean Wage OES Hourly Wage Delta Yearly Wage Differentlal per PWD
$ 41.30 Computer Software Engineers, Applications 9282 $ 43.47 $ (2.17) $ (4,513.60)
$ 37.16 Computer Systems Analysts 3330 $ 39.06 $ (1.90) $ (3,952.00)
$ 44.36 Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software 3092 $ 47.10 $ (2.74) $ (5,699.20)
$ 42.44 Electronics Engineers,Except Computer 1582 $ 44.58 $ (2.14) $ (4,451.20)
$ 28.87 Physical Therapists 1441 $ 37.50 $ (8.63) $ (17,950.40)
$ 60.29 Computer and Information Systems Managers 1412 $ 59.27 $ 1.02 $ 2,121.60
$ 9.57 Landscaping and Groundskeepers 1240 $ 12.23 $ (2.66) $ (5,532.80)
$ 35.30 Mechanical Engineers 1239 $ 39.65 $ (4.35) $ (9,048.00)
$ 42.84 Financial Analysts 1143 $ 41.36 $ 1.48 $ 3,078.40
$ 32.52 Computer Programmers 1101 $ 36.01 $ (3.49) $ (7,259.20)

Physical Therapists (Table 3.(b)) is highlighted to denote a large differential (Delta) between National Mean hourly wage and immigrant worker Prevailing Wage Determinations.


So, Ms. Stevenson, if there is demand for your immigration services, it isn't because there is a shortage of U.S. citizen or permanent resident candidates.   In the aggregate we have lost about 100,000 jobs in these "shortage" occupations. Even within the "growth" occupations, in almost all cases, foreign labor applicants exceeded employment growth; this fact absolutely disproves the labor shortage thesis.

For instance, within Computer Software Engineers, Applications, if 9,282 immigrants were added to the employment roles and the employment levels only rose by 3,780 there are 5,502 Computer Software Engineers, Applications specialists who are now unemployed.

Table 4: 
Occupational Majors: Employment Levels



OCC_CODE Occupational Title GROUP Employment 2010 Employment 2009 Employment 2008
00-0000 All Occupations total 127,097,160 130,647,610 135,185,230
11-0000 Management Occupations major 6,022,860 6,116,380 6,152,650
13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations major 6,090,910 6,063,670 6,135,520
15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations major 3,283,950 3,303,690 3,308,260
17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations major 2,305,530 2,412,730 2,521,630
19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations major 1,064,510 1,308,380 1,296,840
21-0000 Community and Social Service Occupations major 1,901,180 1,891,320 1,861,750
23-0000 Legal Occupations major 992,650 999,020 1,003,270
25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations major 8,457,870 8,488,740 8,451,250
27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations major 1,716,640 1,745,670 1,804,940
29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations major 7,346,580 7,200,950 7,076,800
31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations major 3,962,930 3,886,690 3,779,280
33-0000 Protective Service Occupations major 3,187,810 3,172,420 3,128,960
35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations major 11,027,340 11,218,260 11,438,550
37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations major 4,175,550 4,269,480 4,429,870
39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations major 3,425,220 3,461,910 3,437,520
41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations major 13,437,980 13,715,050 14,336,430
43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations major 21,503,800 22,336,450 23,231,750
45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations major 408,040 419,200 438,490
47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations major 5,072,530 5,751,630 6,548,760
49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations major 4,928,960 5,114,150 5,374,850
51-0000 Production Occupations major 8,236,340 8,927,130 9,919,120
53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations major 8,547,980 8,844,700 9,508,750


Table 5: 
Occupational Majors: Employment Loss Gain

OCC_CODE Occupational Title Loss Gain 2009-2010 Loss Gain 2008-2010
00-0000 All Occupations (3,550,450) (8,088,070)
11-0000 Management Occupations (93,520) (129,790)
13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations 27,240 (44,610)
15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations (19,740) (24,310)
17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations (107,200) (216,100)
19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations (243,870) (232,330)
21-0000 Community and Social Service Occupations 9,860 39,430
23-0000 Legal Occupations (6,370) (10,620)
25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations (30,870) 6,620
27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations (29,030) (88,300)
29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations 145,630 269,780
31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations 76,240 183,650
33-0000 Protective Service Occupations 15,390 58,850
35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations (190,920) (411,210)
37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations (93,930) (254,320)
39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations (36,690) (12,300)
41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations (277,070) (898,450)
43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations (832,650) (1,727,950)
45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations (11,160) (30,450)
47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations (679,100) (1,476,230)
49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations (185,190) (445,890)
51-0000 Production Occupations (690,790) (1,682,780)
53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations (296,720) (960,770)
Employment Loss Gain (3,550,460) (8,088,080)


Source Data:
National Science Foundation WebCASPAR (Educational Statistics)
https://webcaspar.nsf.gov/index.jsp?subHeader=WebCASPARHome

U.S. Department of Labor
Foreign Labor Certification Annual Report

Bureau of Employment Statistic: Office of Employment Statistics
http://www.bls.gov/oes

7 comments:

Anonymous said...

I have a question regarding table 3. There is a column, "Num of PWD", which I'm assuming is "Number of Prevailing Wage Determinations". Please confirm/correct my understanding and, if you would, please explain the significance of this figure. Thanks for your work. Great stuff.

Weaver said...

For Anonymous,

Yes the "Num of PWD" is the number of Pervailing Wage Determinations, made by the Department of Labor.

My understanding is that there are several sources that employer may use to certify that the migrant's wage does not impact similarly employed workers. I assume that the application has made some progress before an adjudicator actually investigates/authorizes a PWD.

I believe that if the employer uses the government prevailing wage schedule, the application is approved at this stage without a PWD. My understanding is that the PWD request is for when the employer uses an alternate source to prove prevailing wage compliance.

Anonymous said...

Hello I like your research.

Can you show the situation of the occupations that need at least a Master's degegree? You don't want a Phd to compete a job for Bachelor's degree right?

Weaver said...

Thanks for your comment.

This is a valid comment, most of these occupations are undergraduate for entry-level.

Here is a link to a lookup.
http://www.cpec.ca.gov/FiscalData/Steps.asp

I will take a look to see if any conclusions can be made from the rather broad SOC titles.

You have addressed a problem where this occurs, postgraduates are admitted into business immigration programs at lower prevailing wage levels even though they may be obviously overqualified for the position.

Anonymous said...

Weaver,

Thanks for compiling all of this very useful data. I used it to write my Senators.

Upon closer inspection of the data, I noticed something strange and I was hoping you'd set me straight.

In Table 2, TOP PERM Labor Certifications and Employment by Occupation, if you add up the employment loss between 2009 and 2010 of the OCC Code 15-XXXX occupations, you come up with (52,430).

However, in Table 5, for the major OCC Code 15-0000 the loss is only (19,740).

What am I missing? Shouldn't the loss in Table 2 be less than or equal to the loss displayed in Table 5 for OCC 15-XXXX occupations?

Weaver said...

Table 2 is not the entire occupational list of Computer related occupations, it is a list of occupations with the most requests for labor certification.

Table 5. contains Computer and Mathematical occupations. Computer is 15-1xxx, Math is 15-2xxx under the Major group 15-0000.

There were changes to the Standard Occupational Classifications (SOC) in 2010, so when evaluating individual occupations you should check with the handbook.

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Subject: Listen to me A******!!

Date: Wed, 19 May 2010 20:49:20 -0700 (PDT)

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